Statistical Methods (261116)

Learning Outcomes

Curricular Unit (UC) of Statistical Methods has as main objective to provide students of scientific knowledge in statistics. The object of statistical study are phenomena or events that are characterized by uncertainty and it is therefore essential to provide students with information enabling them to predict and estimate, as accurately as possible, the results from the studies in communication, as well as in the business.

Study Program

1.    Descriptive Statistics
    a.    Introduction
        a.    Historical review
        b.    General concepts
        c.    Stages of statistical work
    b.    Representation of Data
        a.    Serialization and classification of data
        b.    Frequency distribution chart
        c.    Graphical representation of the data
    c.    Measures of Location
        a.    Arithmetic mean
        b.    Mode
        c.    Median
        d.    Quartiles
        e.    Diagram of extremes and Quartiles
    d.    Measures of Dispersion
        a.    Absolute Measure of Dispersion
            i.    Range
                a.    Quartile Deviation or Semi Inter-Quartile Range
                b.    Average Deviation or Mean Deviation
                c.    Variance
            ii.    Standard Deviation
    e.    Relative Measure of Dispersion
        a.    Coefficient of Variation
    f.    Measure of Skewness and Kurtosis
    g.    Correlation and Regression
2.    Introduction to SPSS
    a.    Definition of SPSS
    b.    SPSS Structure
        a.    Data files
        b.    Toolbar
        c.    Data files
            a.    Create files
            b.    Open files
            c.    Insert cases and variables
            d.    Eliminate cases and variables
            e.    Save the data file
3.    Variables
    a.    Statistical variables and measurement scales
    b.    Most useful statistics for each measurement scale
    c.    Recoding of variables
    d.    Association between variables
    e.    Graphical representation of variables
4.    Statistical inference
    a.    Statistical inference
        a.    Theory of estimation
        b.    Decision theory
    b.    Probability density function
        a.    Normal distribution;
        b.    Chi-square distribution;
        c.    t-student distribution
        d.    F-Snedecor (or Fisher) distribution
        e.    Binomial Distribution
    c.    Parametric tests
        a.    t-student for comparison of means
    d.    Nonparametric tests
        a.    Wilcoxon test
        b.    Mann-Whitney test
        c.    Kruskal-Wallis test
        d.    Friedman test
5.    Analysis of Variance
    a.    One Way ANOVA
    b.    Two way ANOVA
6.    Cluster Analysis
    a.    Definition
    b.    Steps
    c.    Similarity and dissimilarity measures
    d.    Graphical representation
    e.    Methods



Maroco, J. (2003). Análise estatística com utilização do SPSS. Lisboa: Edições Sílabo.
Martinez, L., & Ferreira, A. (2007). Análise de dados com SPSS – Primeiros passos. Lisboa: Escolar Editora.
Pallant, J. (2001). SPSS Survival Manual – A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Pereira, A. (1999). SPSS – Guia prático de utilização - Análise de dados para Ciências Sociais e Psicologia. Lisboa: Edições Sílabo.