Introduction to Psychoanalysis (251048)

Learning Outcomes

In this curricular unit, students are required to acquire essential concepts in psychoanalysis, defined as a method of research which essentially consists in emphasizing the unconscious meaning of words, actions and phantasmatic productions; a psychotherapeutic method; and a set of psychological and psychopathological theories. All these aspects were first developed by Sigmund Freud, whose theoretical legacy about the dynamic unconscious, personality development, psychopathology, psychoanalytic research and treatment methods continues to influence the psychoanalytic field. After discussing the contributions of the founder of psychoanalysis, developments proposed by several authors of reference, that significantly expanded psychoanalytic theory and practice, are presented. Finally, aspects concerning contemporary practice are discussed, as well as the institutional framework and history of the international and national psychoanalytic movement, and the applications of psychoanalysis to other fields of knowledge.
The main objective is that the students acquire knowledge that enables them to conceptualize mental processes from the psychoanalytical point of view, develop critical reflections and make a first contact with essential texts in the history of psychoanalysis.

Study Program

Prologue. Definition of psychoanalysis
1.    Genesis of psychoanalysis: Life and work of Sigmund Freud
1.1.    Biographical sketches of Sigmund Freud (From the first years of life to youth; Hysteria, hypnosis and the influence of Jean-Martin Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim; Return to Vienna, correspondence with Fliess, relationship with Breuer and the case of Anna O; “Studies on hysteria” (1893-1895)
1.2.    Self-analysis of Freud and his discoveries (1895-1899)
1.3.    Creation of psychoanalysis and the technique of free association (The naming of the new therapeutic method: “psychoanalysis”; From the theory of real seduction to the theory of the ghost; Evolution of the psychoanalytic technique: the couch and free association)
1.4.    The unconscious (Dynamic or Freudian unconscious; “Interpretation of dreams” (1900) and “Psychopathology of everyday life” (1901); The first Freudian topic (topographical theory): Unconscious, conscious and preconscious; The second Freudian topic (topographical theory) Structural: Id, Ego and Superego)
1.5.    The (re)discovery of childhood (“Three essays on the theory of sexuality” (1905); The psycho-affective development; The story of Oedipus; The tragedy “Oedipus the King” by Sophocles; Oedipus complex, incest and parricide in childhood; Further considerations: Ajase complex and Japanese psychoanalysis; Otto Rank's hero myth)
1.6.    Freudian metapsychology (Definition of metapsychology; Dynamic, topical and economic coordinates; Principle of reality and principle of pleasure)
1.7.    Psychotherapy issues (Resistance and transference: How to make the unconscious conscious? The myth of Narcissus; Narcissism and the development of object love)
1.8.    Eros and Thanatos (Life drive and death drive; “Beyond the pleasure principle” (1920)

2.    Development of psychoanalysis: Revolutions and continuities
2.1.    The psychoanalytical movement (Brief notes on the life and work of its members; Ferenczi, forerunner of the object revolution)
2.2.    Anna Freud (Continuation of Freudian orthodoxy and child psychoanalysis; Ego Psychology and Defense Mechanisms)
2.3.    Melanie Klein (The Person and the Work; Psychoanalysis of Children and the Toy Technique; Paranoid-schizoid Position and Depressive Position)
2.4.    Donald Woods Winnicott (Mother-infant dyad and transitional object)
2.5.    Wilfred Bion (Contribution to the study of groups; Theory of Thought)

3.    Practice of psychoanalysis: Inside the psychoanalytic space
3.1.    Technical considerations of the contemporary psychoanalytic clinic (Objectives, setting and therapeutic process; Therapist's attitude; Indications and contraindications for therapy; Development of psychoanalytically inspired dynamic psychotherapies)
3.2.    Training and the institutional framework of psychoanalysts (Psychoanalytic training, didactic analysis and clinical supervision; From the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society to the International Psychoanalytic Association; Psychoanalysis in Portugal; Prehistory of the Portuguese psychoanalytic movement: From Abbot Faria to the 1950s; Psychoanalysis in Portugal after the 1950s and the foundation of the Portuguese Society of Psychoanalysis)
3.3.    Psychoanalysis applied to other fields of knowledge



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